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For the Contemporary Flutist

introducing the 12 flute etudes on extended flute techniques from the etude book 'For the Contemporary Flutist' by Wil Offermans

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Etude 10: Circular Breathing

The phenomena of circular breathing is one of the highlights of the extended flute techniques. In this chapter, we will discuss the circular breathing as used in ethnic flutes, we will look to the technique behind the circular breathing, as well as how to start to study circular breathing. Circular breathing is extremely fascinating. Make sure you work on it constantly, and not just for two weeks or so, but for several months, or better, years. Yes, it takes time - like all interesting things - but the final payoff will be tremendously.

"…if most Balinese farmers can play their flute with circular breathing, why not western flutists can do it?"

We are working on a new circular breathing video, which will be published here. So come back soon again!

VIDEO Etude 10: Circular Breathing
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Etude 10: Circular Breathing

This short sample video is on Etude 10: Circular Breathing from the book For the Contemporary Flutist by Wil Offermans, which contains the 12 studies on contemporary flute techniques. Offermans recorded the etudes on the CD Daily Sensibilities.
* for copyright protection scores in the videos are partly blurred.
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This short sample video is on Etude 10: Circular Breathing from the book For the Contemporary Flutist by Wil Offermans, which contains the 12 studies on contemporary flute techniques. Offermans recorded all the etudes on the CD Daily Sensibilities.

The Endless Flute Sound

When I was about 15 years old, for some reason, I started to dream about extending the sound of the flute, similar to what a bow-played string instrument can do by alternating up and down strokes. Why a flutist always has to interrupt the sound for taking a breath? Isn't there a way to create an ‘endless’ flute sound, where the breath-timing becomes irrelevant? I asked my music friends, I asked my flute teacher, I asked and asked, but nobody really could advice me. Some declared me for insane, as many others assured me that it is simply not possible to extend the duration of a flute sound beyond the one-breath limit. Fortunately, this only further motivated me to search for a way to create an 'endless' flute sound.

Some years later, after lots of trial and error, indeed I managed to create an ‘endless’ stream of air which allowed me to play an ‘endless’ flute sound! It was a wonderful time! Being able to play ‘endlessly’ transformed my playing considerably in a unique way. One should remember that this was around 1980 and in these days there were nearly no flutists who were able to blow an ‘endless’ sound. Eventually I learned that what I was doing - my 'endless' sound - was in fact called circular breathing.

Ethnic Flutes

Later, when I had the possibility to travel around the world intensively, I was surprised to learn that so many flutes around the world do use circular breathing. Just to mention a few: the Klui (Thailand), the Suling (Bali, Indonesia), the Saluang (Sumatra, Indonesia) and the Di-zi (China). Also many other wind instruments, especially double reed instruments use circular breathing as a traditional technique. Another well-known example is the didgeridoo from the Australian aboriginals, actually a trumpet-like instrument. While in the western classical flute world we tend to call circular breathing ‘new’, we see that in the ethnic (flute) music the circular breathing has been practiced for hundreds, if not, thousands of years.

Suling Gambuh in Bali

The Suling-Gambuh performed with circular breathing in Bali, Indonesia

In 1985, my project Round About 12.5 brought me around the world and to countries like Indonesia. There I was invited by Wayan - a Balinese friend and student at the Kokar Music and Dance Institute in Denpasar - to visit his parents. So together we travelled to Manikliyu, a remote village in central Bali in the shadow of the huge volcano Mount Batur and surrounded by coffee-fields. After we arrived at the village, we shared some delicious coffee and bananas with a group of locals, mainly farmers. Next, we played the local flute, the Suling (a recorded-style flute out of bamboo), which is indeed played with circular breathing. And it turned out that all villagers, young and old, could play the flute with circular breathing. What a miracle! But when all these Balinese farmer-flutists can use circular breathing on their flute, why not all serious western flutists can do so?

Back to the western world, we can hear circular breathing performed in more recent music styles, like in jazz, especially on saxophone and trumpet. The great master Rahsaan Roland Kirk (picture) was obviously a genius in using circular breathing on the flute as well as on multiple reed-instruments simultaneously.

Audio samples: Circular Breathing

1. Baturay by I Made Djimate, Legong suling flute ensemble, Bali, Indonesia
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2. A double-flute in Rajastan, India
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3. The Saluang end-blown flute in Sumatra, Indonesia
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The Technique of Circular Breathing

When we exhale in our normal breathing, we blow air out of the lungs. Once we stop the blowing, we refill the lungs by inhaling air. Next we can exhale again, etc. This normal breathing process results in musical phrases, which are so typical for woodwind and vocal music.

Normal Breathing Score

With the technique of circular breathing we want to prolong the sound beyond the duration of one-breath. So, we have to develop a breathing technique to continuously blow air out. The solution is relatively simple: beside the lungs, we need to involve a second exhaling system, which blows out air while the lungs inhale by the nose. This second exhaling system is our mouth cavity. By alternating between these two exhaling systems - the lungs (1) and the 'balloon' of mouth cavity (2) - we create a non-stop flow of air. By using this ‘circular breathing’ we can extend the traditional breath-based musical phrases and play continuous phrases without limitation.

Circular Breathing Score

In the image below we create an ‘endless’ flow of water at the final exit by alternating between two 'exhaling' systems. This is very parallel to what we do when performing the circular breathing.

Parallel water system

So for the circular breathing we use the mouth cavity like a balloon, which blows out air independently while we refill the lungs through the nose. By alternating between the lungs, as the main system, and the mouth cavity (balloon), as the assisting system, we can create a constant flow of air and produce the circular breathing. Use the basic version below to first understand the process. Later, once you manage the basics, you can use the quick version as a guide to speed up the inhaling while blowing from the balloon, which is an essential technique in the development.

Why you should study Circular Breathing

Circular Breathing explained

The main reason to study circular breathing is not directly to master this exciting technique, but to develop simultaneously several aspects of your flute playing. In particular these are:

  • Embouchure: you will learn to control the embouchure with much more detail and flexibility.
  • Breathing: you will develop a higher level of consciousness concerning your breathing system, the diaphragm and other muscles involved.
  • Sound: your flute sound in general will improve, especially concerning flexibility and openness of sound.
To develop these aspects, you do not need to be able to perform circular breathing. You just need to study circular breathing exercises for a few minutes on a daily basis and continue to do so for at least several months. During these months, do not get frustrate if you cannot do it (yet), but better enjoy this breathing experience and be happy with what you actually already can.

How to study the Basics of Circular Breathing

We will study circular breathing in a sequence of steps, where each step is an extension of the step before. It is truly important that you take enough time for mastering each step. Also, once you progress to a next step you should frequently return to any previous steps. In that way you not only learn the physical muscles involved, but - and this is important - will accustom yourself entirely to each step. Probably, the action of exhaling and inhaling simultaneously might be quite a hurdle, so you should give yourself sufficient practice time to develop a comfortable sensation. To study these steps daily may just take a few minutes. But do repeat these short studies often. For example studying 3 times a day for 3 minutes is a good rule of thumb (3x3).

Step 1: Nose + Balloon

Close the mouth and inflate the cheeks with air. Relax the embouchure as much as possible. Now inhale and exhale through the nose normally. In this step, the mouth cavity may feel (and look) like a balloon with just static air inside and totally separated from the lungs. Alternatively, you could fill the mouth with some water and then in and exhale through the nose normally.

Circular Breathing: Step 1

Step 2: Nose + Deflating Balloon

Perform like step 1. Additionally you let the air in the mouth escape through a small lip-opening, little by little, or even better, by a constant airstream. This feels like a deflating balloon. We can try also this step with water in the mouth. Make the water escape through a small lip-opening, creating a small water-jet (best to study this when taking a shower).

Circular Breathing: Step 2

Step 3: Nose + Deflating Balloon → Lungs out

In step 2, one moment the balloon (mouth-cavity) will run out of air. Now, before reaching this moment, we must open the throat and straightly blow out from the lungs.

Circular Breathing: Step 3

Step 4: Nose + Deflating Balloon → Lungs out → Balloon air-catch (→ repeat)

We finished step 3 with blowing from the lungs. In step 4 we will puff the cheeks, like catching the air with the mouth cavity just before the lungs will run out of air. With this air in the mouth we return to the ‘balloon’ (step 2), allowing air to escape through a small lip-opening. Here the process can be repeated, creating a full circle and an 'endless' flow of air. Congratulations!

Circular Breathing: Step 4

Studying Circular Breathing on the Thumpy Flute

The Thumpy Flute

The thumb flute Thumpy - a creation by Wil Offermans - originated as an educational concept to attract and motivate especially the younger generation. But the Thumpy flute is also a most enjoyable addition for any advanced flutist and a perfect instrument to study the circular breathing. You can first try with wind sounds, while closing both endings with the thumbs. Next, try with a flute sound, again first with both endings closed. Repeat this often!

Benefits

  • always immediately at hand to do some circular breathing studying, easy to take around.
  • simple, relaxed and enjoyable, learn with a comfortable body position (you hold the Thumpy centered).
  • it is easier to perform your first circular breathing sound on the Thumpy compared to the flute.
  • affordable and low-priced (keep your flute safely stored while studying circular breathing).

Thumpy by Wil Offermans
The Thumpy flute

Think in Years, not in Minutes

Remember when studying extended techniques that the study itself is both the road as well as the goal. When we enjoy the road, the result will come without forcing. This is also true for studying circular breathing. Give yourself one or two years, why not? And we all know that the good things in the life do take time. This is not a fast food, but a delicious food. Don’t give up after a few days, but do continue! During the study you will progress in controlling your breathing system and your flute playing will improve significantly. And once you can indeed perform the circular breathing, imagine… the rest of your life you will have a super-technique at your disposal!

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